Most of Germany has a temperate climate, ranging from oceanic in the north to continental in the east and southeast. Winters range from the cold in the Southern Alps to cool and are generally overcast with limited precipitation, while summers can vary from hot and dry to cool and rainy. The northern regions have prevailing westerly winds that bring in moist air from the North Sea, moderating the temperature and increasing precipitation. Conversely, the southeast regions have more extreme temperatures.[111]

From February 2019–2020, average monthly temperatures in Germany ranged from a low of 3.3 °C (37.9 °F) in January 2020 to a high of 19.8 °C (67.6 °F) in June 2019.[112] Average monthly precipitation ranged from 30 litres per square metre in February and April 2019 to 125 litres per square metre in February 2020.[113] Average monthly hours of sunshine ranged from 45 in November 2019 to 300 in June 2019.[114] The highest temperature ever recorded in Germany was 42.6 °C on 25 July 2019 in Lingen and the lowest was −37.8 °C on 12 February 1929 in Wolnzach.[115][116]
German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.[232] It is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union, and one of the three procedural languages of the European Commission.[233] German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union, with around 100 million native speakers.[234]

Recognised native minority languages in Germany are Danish, Low German, Low Rhenish, Sorbian, Romany, North Frisian and Saterland Frisian; they are officially protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish, Polish, Greek, Serbo-Croatian, Bulgarian and other Balkan languages, as well as Russian. Germans are typically multilingual: 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language and 27% in at least two.[232]

Germany is the ninth most visited country in the world as of 2017, with 37.4 million visits. Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over €105.3 billion to German GDP. Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry supports 4.2 million jobs.

Germany's most visited and popular landmarks include Cologne Cathedral, the Brandenburg Gate, the Reichstag, the Dresden Frauenkirche, Neuschwanstein Castle, Heidelberg Castle, the Wartburg, and Sanssouci Palace. The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular theme park resort.
Other Condition
Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a low level of corruption, and a high level of innovation. It is the world's third-largest exporter and third-largest importer of goods,[4] and has the largest economy in Europe, which is also the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP,[173] and the fifth-largest by PPP.[174] Its GDP per capita measured in purchasing power standards amounts to 121% of the EU27 average (100%).[175] The service sector contributes approximately 69% of the total GDP, industry 31%, and agriculture 1% as of 2017.[4] The unemployment rate published by Eurostat amounts to 3.2% as of January 2020, which is the fourth-lowest in the EU.[176]

Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than 450 million consumers.[177] In 2017, the country accounted for 28% of the Eurozone economy according to the International Monetary Fund.[178] Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro, in 2002.[179] Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank, which is headquartered in Frankfurt.[180][170]

Being home to the modern car, the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world,[181] and is the fourth-largest by production.[182] The top ten exports of Germany are vehicles, machinery, chemical goods, electronic products, electrical equipments, pharmaceuticals, transport equipments, basic metals, food products, and rubber and plastics.[183]

Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2019, the Fortune Global 500, 29 are headquartered in Germany.[184] 30 major Germany-based companies are included in the DAX, the German stock market index which is operated by Frankfurt Stock Exchange.[185] Well-known international brands include Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Volkswagen, Audi, Siemens, Allianz, Adidas, Porsche, Bosch and Deutsche Telekom.[186] Berlin is a hub for startup companies and has become the leading location for venture capital funded firms in the European Union.[187] Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises, known as the Mittelstand model.[188] These companies represent 48% global market leaders in their segments, labelled hidden champions.[189]

Research and development efforts form an integral part of the German economy.[190] In 2018 Germany ranked fourth globally in terms of number of science and engineering research papers published.[191] Germany was ranked 9th in the Global Innovation Index in 2019 and 2020 and 10th in 2021.[192][193][194] Research institutions in Germany include the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz Association, and the Fraunhofer Society and the Leibniz Association.[195] Germany is the largest contributor to the European Space Agency.[196]
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