Indonesia lies along the equator, and its climate tends to be relatively even year-round.[82] Indonesia has two seasons—a wet season and a dry season—with no extremes of summer or winter.[83] For most of Indonesia, the dry season falls between May and October, with the wet season between November and April.[83] Indonesia's climate is almost entirely tropical, dominated by the tropical rainforest climate found on every large island of Indonesia. More cooling climate types do exist in mountainous regions that are 1,300 to 1,500 metres (4,300 to 4,900 feet) above sea level. The oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb) prevails in highland areas adjacent to rainforest climates, with reasonably uniform precipitation year-round. In highland areas near the tropical monsoon and tropical savanna climates, the subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb) is prevalent with a more pronounced dry season.[citation needed]

Some regions, such as Kalimantan and Sumatra, experience only slight differences in rainfall and temperature between the seasons, whereas others, such as Nusa Tenggara, experience far more pronounced differences with droughts in the dry season and floods in the wet. Rainfall varies across regions, with more in western Sumatra, Java, and the interiors of Kalimantan and Papua, and less in areas closer to Australia, such as Nusa Tenggara, which tends to be dry. The almost uniformly warm waters that constitute 81% of Indonesia's area ensure that land temperatures remain relatively constant. Humidity is quite high, at between 70 and 90%. Winds are moderate and generally predictable, with monsoons usually blowing in from the south and east in June through October and from the northwest in November through March. Typhoons and large-scale storms pose little hazard to mariners; significant dangers come from swift currents in channels, such as the Lombok and Sape straits.[85]

Several studies consider Indonesia to be at severe risk from the projected effects of climate change.[86] These include unreduced emissions resulting in an average temperature rise of around 1 °C (2 °F) by mid-century,[87][88] raising the frequency of drought and food shortages (with an impact on precipitation and the patterns of wet and dry seasons, and thus Indonesia's agriculture system[88]) as well as numerous diseases and wildfires.[88] Rising sea levels would also threaten most of Indonesia's population, who live in low-lying coastal areas.[88][89][90] Impoverished communities would likely be affected the most by climate change..(Wikipedia ensiklopedia)
Indonesia is an ethnically diverse country, with around 1,300 distinct native ethnic groups.[4] Most Indonesians are descended from Austronesian peoples whose languages had origins in Proto-Austronesian, which possibly originated in what is now Taiwan. Another major grouping is the Melanesians, who inhabit eastern Indonesia (the Maluku Islands, Western New Guinea and the eastern part of the Lesser Sunda Islands).
The Javanese are the largest ethnic group, constituting 40.2% of the population,[4] and are politically dominant.[226] They are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of Java and also in sizeable numbers in most provinces. The Sundanese are the next largest group (15.4%), followed by Batak, Madurese, Betawi, Minangkabau, Buginese and Malay people.[d] A sense of Indonesian nationhood exists alongside strong regional identities.[227]

The country's official language is Indonesian, a variant of Malay based on its prestige dialect, which had been the archipelago's lingua franca for centuries. It was promoted by nationalists in the 1920s and achieved official status in 1945 under the name Bahasa Indonesia.[228] Due to centuries-long contact with other languages, it is rich in local and foreign influences.[e] Nearly every Indonesian speaks the language due to its widespread use in education, academics, communications, business, politics, and mass media. Most Indonesians also speak at least one of more than 700 local languages,[3] often as their first language. Most belong to the Austronesian language family, while over 270 Papuan languages are spoken in eastern Indonesia.[3] Of these, Javanese is the most widely spoken[79] and has co-official status in the Special Region of Yogyakarta.[232]

In 1930, Dutch and other Europeans (Totok), Eurasians, and derivative people like the Indos, numbered 240,000 or 0.4% of the total population.[233] Historically, they constituted only a tiny fraction of the native population and remain so today. Also, the Dutch language never had a substantial number of speakers or official status despite the Dutch presence for almost 350 years.[234] The small minorities that can speak it or Dutch-based creole languages fluently are the aforementioned ethnic groups and descendants of Dutch colonisers. This reflected the Dutch colonial empire's primary purpose, which was commercial exchange as opposed to sovereignty over homogeneous landmasses.[235] Today, there is some degree of fluency by either educated members of the oldest generation or legal professionals,[236] as specific law codes are still only available in Dutch..(Wikipedia ensiklopedia)

Tourism contributed around US$19.7 billion to GDP in 2019. In 2018, Indonesia received 15.8 million visitors, a growth of 12.5% from last year, and received an average receipt of US$967.[206][207] China, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, and Japan are the top five sources of visitors to Indonesia.[208] Since 2011, Wonderful Indonesia has been the country's international marketing campaign slogan to promote tourism.[209]

Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.[210]
Nature and culture are prime attractions of Indonesian tourism. The country has a well-preserved natural ecosystem with rainforests stretching over about 57% of Indonesia's land (225 million acres). Forests on Sumatra and Kalimantan are examples of popular destinations, such as the Orangutan wildlife reserve. Moreover, Indonesia has one of the world's longest coastlines, measuring 54,716 kilometres (33,999 mi). The ancient Borobudur and Prambanan temples, as well as Toraja and Bali with their traditional festivities, are some of the popular destinations for cultural tourism.[211]

Indonesia has nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the Komodo National Park and the Sawahlunto Coal Mine; and a further 19 in a tentative list that includes Bunaken National Park and Raja Ampat Islands.[212] Other attractions include specific points in Indonesian history, such as the colonial heritage of the Dutch East Indies in the old towns of Jakarta and Semarang and the royal palaces of Pagaruyung, Ubud, and Yogyakarta.(Wikipedia ensiklopedia)
Bali, Indonesia, Asia
Bali (/ˈbɑːli/; Balinese) is a province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. East of Java and west of Lombok, the province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan, and Nusa Ceningan. The provincial capital, Denpasar, is the most populous city in the Lesser Sunda Islands and the second-largest, after Makassar, in Eastern Indonesia. The upland town of Ubud is considered Bali's cultural centre. The province is Indonesia's main tourist destination, with a significant rise in tourism since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy.

Bali is the only Hindu-majority province in Muslim-majority Indonesia, with 86.9% of the population adhering to Balinese Hinduism. It is renowned for its highly developed arts, including traditional and modern dance, sculpture, painting, leather, metalworking, and music. The Indonesian International Film Festival is held every year in Bali. Other international events held in Bali include the Miss World 2013 and 2018 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. In March 2017, TripAdvisor named Bali as the world's top destination in its Traveller's Choice award, which it also earned in January 2021.

Bali is part of the Coral Triangle, the area with the highest biodiversity of marine species, especially fish and turtles. In this area alone, over 500 reef-building coral species can be found. For comparison, this is about seven times as many as in the entire Caribbean. Bali is the home of the Subak irrigation system, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is also home to a unified confederation of kingdoms composed of 10 traditional royal Balinese houses, each house ruling a specific geographic area. The confederation is the successor of the Bali Kingdom. The royal houses are not recognised by the government of Indonesia; however, they originated before Dutch colonisation.

Tourist Attraction
Berada di atas tebing curam, Pura Luhur Uluwatu salah satu dari enam pura utama yang diyakini sebagai pilar spiritual Bali. Dikenal dengan lokasinya yang megah dan pemandangan laut yang menakjubkan candi ini memiliki latar belakang matahari terbenam yang menakjubkan yang hampir ajaib.
You can marvel at the daily Kecak dance performances and the stunning Balinese architecture that make up this sea temple. This temple is situated 250 feet above the waves of the Indian Ocean making it an ideal spot for catching stunning sunset views.

This temple is the worship place of a Balinese-Hindu deity and only a true Hindu follower can enter the second smaller temple inside.


Uluwatu Temple with background sunset
Location: Pecatu, South Kuta, Badung Regency, Bali 

Other Condition
Indonesia has a mixed economy in which the private sector and government play vital roles.[166] As the only G20 member state in Southeast Asia,[167] the country has the largest economy in the region and is classified as a newly industrialised country. Per a 2022 estimate, it is the world's 17th largest economy by nominal GDP and 7th in terms of GDP at PPP, estimated to be US$1.289 trillion and US$3.995 trillion, respectively. Per capita GDP in PPP is US$14,535, while nominal per capita GDP is US$4,691.[9] Services are the economy's largest sector and account for 43.4% of GDP (2018), followed by industry (39.7%) and agriculture (12.8%).[168] Since 2009, it has employed more people than other sectors, accounting for 47.7% of the total labour force, followed by agriculture (30.2%) and industry (21.9%).[169]

Over time, the structure of the economy has changed considerably.[170] Historically, it has been weighted heavily towards agriculture, reflecting both its stage of economic development and government policies in the 1950s and 1960s to promote agricultural self-sufficiency.[170] A gradual process of industrialisation and urbanisation began in the late 1960s and accelerated in the 1980s as falling oil prices saw the government focus on diversifying away from oil exports and towards manufactured exports.[170] This development continued throughout the 1980s and into the next decade despite the 1990 oil price shock, during which the GDP rose at an average rate of 7.1%. As a result, the official poverty rate fell from 60% to 15%.[171] Trade barriers reduction from the mid-1980s made the economy more globally integrated. The growth ended with the 1997 Asian financial crisis that severely impacted the economy, including a 13.1% real GDP contraction in 1998 and a 78% inflation. The economy reached its low point in mid-1999 with only 0.8% real GDP growth.[172]

Relatively steady inflation[173] and an increase in GDP deflator and the Consumer Price Index[174] have contributed to strong economic growth in recent years. From 2007 to 2019, annual growth accelerated to between 4% and 6% due to improvements in the banking sector and domestic consumption,[175] helping Indonesia weather the 2008–2009 Great Recession,[176] and regain in 2011 the investment grade rating it had lost in 1997.[177] As of 2019, 9.41% of the population lived below the poverty line, and the official open unemployment rate was 5.28%.[178] During the first year of the global COVID-19 pandemic, the economy suffered its first recession since the 1997 crisis but recovered in the following year.[179]

Indonesia has abundant natural resources. Its primary industries are fishing, petroleum, timber, paper products, cotton cloth, tourism, petroleum mining, natural gas, bauxite, coal and tin. Its main agricultural products are rice, coconuts, soybeans, bananas, coffee, tea, palm, rubber, and sugar cane.[180] These commodities make up a large portion of the country's exports, with palm oil and coal briquettes as the leading export commodities. In addition to refined and crude petroleum as the primary imports, telephones, vehicle parts and wheat cover the majority of additional imports. China, the United States, Japan, Singapore, India, Malaysia, South Korea and Thailand are Indonesia's principal export markets and import partners.(Wikipedia ensiklopedia)