Due to its equator-side location, Indonesia's climate is generally consistent throughout the year. Indonesia has two seasons—a wet season and a dry season—with neither a particularly hot nor cold period. In the majority of Indonesia, the dry season lasts from May to October, and the wet season lasts from November to April. The tropical rainforest climate that is present on all of Indonesia's major islands dominates the country's climate, which is almost entirely tropical. Mountainous regions with elevations of 1,300–1,500 meters (4,300–4,900 feet) above sea level do have more cooling climate types. In highland regions near rainforest climates, the oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb) predominates, with reasonably even precipitation throughout the year. In highland regions close to the tropical monsoon and tropical savanna climates, the subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb) is common with a more pronounced dry season.

While some regions, like Kalimantan and Sumatra, only see minor variations in temperature and rainfall throughout the year, others, like Nusa Tenggara, see much more dramatic variations, including floods and droughts during the wet and dry seasons. Rainfall varies by region, with more falling in western Sumatra, Java, and the interiors of Kalimantan and Papua and less in regions nearer to Australia, like Nusa Tenggara, which is frequently dry. Temperatures on land are kept fairly constant thanks to the nearly uniformly warm waters that make up 81 percent of Indonesia's surface. Between 70 and 90 percent of the atmosphere is humid. The monsoon season typically lasts from June through October, and from November through March, winds are moderate and generally predictable. Mariners are less at risk from typhoons and large-scale storms than they are from swift currents in narrow channels like the Lombok and Sape straits.

Numerous studies suggest that Indonesia is extremely vulnerable to the predicted effects of climate change. These include the average temperature rising by about 1 °C (2 °F) by the middle of the century as a result of unreduced emissions, the frequency of droughts and food shortages increasing (with an effect on precipitation and the timing of the wet and dry seasons, and thus Indonesia's agricultural system), and the occurrence of numerous diseases and wildfires. Because most Indonesians live in low-lying coastal areas, rising sea levels would also pose a threat to them. Climate change would likely have the biggest impact on underprivileged communities.

Around 1,300 different native ethnic groups make up the ethnically diverse nation of Indonesia. The majority of Indonesians are descended from Austronesian peoples, whose languages were derived from Proto-Austronesian, which may have originated in what is now Taiwan. The Melanesians are a significant ethnic group that lives in eastern Indonesia, specifically in the Maluku Islands, Western New Guinea, and the eastern Lesser Sunda Islands.
With a 40% share of the population, the Javanese are the largest ethnic group and the most powerful in politics. They can be found in significant numbers in most provinces and are mainly found in the central to eastern regions of Java. The Sundanese are the second-largest group after the Batak, Madurese, Betawi, Minangkabau, Buginese, and Malay (15.4%). Along with distinct regional identities, there is a sense of Indonesian nationhood.

Indonesian, a Malay variant based on its eminent dialect that had long served as the archipelago's common tongue, is the official language of the nation. Nationalists promoted it in the 1920s, and it became officially recognized in 1945 as Bahasa Indonesia. It has a wide range of regional and international influences as a result of centuries of contact with other languages. Due to its widespread use in communication, business, politics, academia, and the media, almost every Indonesian can speak it. Most Indonesians are also literate in at least one of the more than 700 regional tongues, frequently as their mother tongue. Over 270 Papuan languages are spoken in eastern Indonesia, the majority of which are members of the Austronesian language family. The most widely used of these is Javanese, which also holds co-official status in Yogyakarta's Special Region.

Dutch and other Europeans (Totok), Eurasians, and people descended from them like the Indos made up 240,000 people in 1930, or 0.4 percent of the entire population. They historically made up a very small percentage of the native population and still do so today. Despite the Dutch presence for almost 350 years, the Dutch language never had a significant number of speakers or official status. The aforementioned ethnic groups and the descendants of Dutch colonizers are the tiny minorities who are fluent in it or in creoles that have a Dutch foundation. This reflected the main goal of the Dutch colonial empire, which was trade rather than sovereignty over uniform landmasses. Due to the fact that specific law codes are still only available in Dutch, educated members of the older generation and legal professionals today speak the language with some proficiency.

In 2019, tourism increased GDP by about $197 billion.
Compared to the previous year, there were 15 point 8 million more visitors to Indonesia in 2018, who spent an average of US$967 each. Since 2011, the country's international marketing campaign slogan to promote tourism has been Wonderful Indonesia. China, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, and Japan are the top five sources of visitors to Indonesia.

According to Conservation International, the Raja Ampat Islands in West Papua are home to the most diverse marine population ever observed.
The two main draws for tourists to Indonesia are nature and culture. With rainforests covering about 57 percent of Indonesia's land area (225 million acres), the nation has a well-preserved natural ecosystem. Popular tourist destinations include the Orangutan wildlife reserve and the forests of Sumatra and Kalimantan.
In addition, Indonesia's coastline, which stretches 54,716 kilometers (33,999 miles), is among the world's longest.
Some of the well-liked locations for cultural tourism include the historic temples of Borobudur and Prambanan, Toraja, and Bali, with their customary celebrations.

There are nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Indonesia, including the Komodo National Park and the Sawahlunto Coal Mine. An additional 19 sites, including the Bunaken National Park and the Raja Ampat Islands, are on a tentative list. Other points of interest in Indonesian history include the royal palaces in Pagaruyung, Ubud, and Yogyakarta, as well as the colonial legacy of the Dutch East Indies in the old towns of Jakarta and Semarang.
Bali, Indonesia, Asia
The westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands, Bali (/bli/; Balinese) is a province of Indonesia. The province is made up of Bali and a few other smaller neighboring islands, including Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan, and Nusa Ceningan, which are located west of Lombok and east of Java. Denpasar, the provincial capital, is the second-largest city in Eastern Indonesia after Makassar and the most populous city in the Lesser Sunda Islands. The town of Ubud in the mountains is regarded as Bali's cultural hub. With a significant increase in tourism since the 1980s, the province has become Indonesia's top tourist destination. 80 percent of its economy is derived from activities related to tourism.

With 86.9% of the population practicing Balinese Hinduism, Bali is the only province in largely Muslim Indonesia with a Hindu majority. It is renowned for its highly developed artistic disciplines, which include music, sculpture, painting, leatherwork, and both traditional and contemporary dance. Bali hosts the annual Indonesian International Film Festival. In addition, Bali hosted the World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund Annual Meetings in 2018 and the Miss World 2013 Pageant. Bali was named the world's top destination by TripAdvisor in March 2017 and again in January 2021.

Bali is a part of the Coral Triangle, which has a high diversity of marine species, particularly fish and turtles. Over 500 species of coral that form reefs are present in this area alone. This is approximately seven times as many as there are in the entire Caribbean. The Subak irrigation system, which is located in Bali, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Additionally, it is the location of a unified confederation of kingdoms made up of 10 traditional royal Balinese houses, each of which is in charge of a particular region. In place of the Bali Kingdom, the confederation now reigns. Although the royal houses predate Dutch colonization, the Indonesian government does not recognize them.

Tourist Attraction
Berada di atas tebing curam, Pura Luhur Uluwatu salah satu dari enam pura utama yang diyakini sebagai pilar spiritual Bali. Dikenal dengan lokasinya yang megah dan pemandangan laut yang menakjubkan candi ini memiliki latar belakang matahari terbenam yang menakjubkan yang hampir ajaib.
You can marvel at the daily Kecak dance performances and the stunning Balinese architecture that make up this sea temple. This temple is situated 250 feet above the waves of the Indian Ocean making it an ideal spot for catching stunning sunset views.

This temple is the worship place of a Balinese-Hindu deity and only a true Hindu follower can enter the second smaller temple inside.
Uluwatu Temple with background sunset
Location: Pecatu, South Kuta, Badung Regency, Bali
Different Condition.
In Indonesia's mixed economy, both the government and the private sector play significant roles. The country is categorized as a newly industrialized nation and is the only G20 member state in Southeast Asia. It also has the largest economy in the region. According to estimates for 2022, with nominal GDP of US$1 point 289 trillion and PPP GDP of US$3 point 995 trillion, respectively, it has the 17th largest economy in the world. Compared to nominal per capita GDP, which is $4,691, PPP per capita GDP is $14,535. The largest sector of the economy, accounting for 43.4% of GDP in 2018, is services, followed by industry (39.7%) and agriculture (12.8%). Since 2009, it has been the sector with the highest employment rate, making up 47.7% of all labor force members, followed by agriculture (30.2%) and industry (21.9%).

The economy's structure has undergone significant change over time.
In the past, it has been heavily skewed toward agriculture, which reflects both its economic development stage and government policies from the 1950s and 1960s that aimed to encourage agricultural self-sufficiency. In the 1980s, as oil prices fell and the government turned its attention away from oil exports and toward manufactured exports, a slow-moving process of industrialization and urbanization gained momentum. Despite the oil price shock of 1990, which saw the GDP increase at an average rate of 7 point 1 percent, this development persisted throughout the 1980s and into the following decade. As a result, the official poverty rate decreased from 60% to 15%. The economy became more globally integrated after the middle of the 1980s saw a reduction in trade barriers. The economic expansion came to an end with the 1997 Asian financial crisis, which had a negative impact on the economy and caused a 13 point one percent real GDP contraction in 1998 as well as a 78 percent inflation. With real GDP growth of just 0 point 8 percent, the economy hit its lowest point in the middle of 1999.

Recent years have seen robust economic growth due to relatively stable inflation, an increase in the GDP deflator, and an increase in the consumer price index. Improvements in the banking industry and domestic consumption caused Indonesia's annual growth to increase to 4–6 percent between 2007 and 2019; this helped Indonesia weather the Great Recession of 2008–2009 and help it regain its investment grade rating from 1997 in 2011. In 2019, the official open unemployment rate was 5.28 percent, and 9.41 percent of the population was considered to be living in poverty. The economy experienced its first recession since the 1997 crisis during the first year of the global COVID-19 pandemic, but it recovered the following year.

Natural resources are plentiful in Indonesia.
The country's main industries are fishing, oil, timber, paper products, cotton clothing, tourism, oil mining, natural gas, bauxite, coal, and tin. Rice, coconuts, soybeans, bananas, coffee, tea, palm oil, rubber, and sugar cane are some of its main agricultural products.
The bulk of the nation's exports are made up of these goods, with coal briquettes and palm oil ranking as the top two.
Phones, auto parts, and wheat make up the majority of additional imports, in addition to refined and unrefined petroleum, which are the main imports. The main export and import destinations for Indonesia are China, the US, Japan, Singapore, India, Malaysia, South Korea, and Thailand.